Medical methods used to treat infertility are referred to as assisted reproductive technology (ART). In vitro fertilisation (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation of gametes or embryos, and/or the use of fertility drugs are all addressed in this topic. ART is also known as fertility treatment when it is used to treat infertility. ART is mostly associated with reproductive endocrinology and infertility. In the case of fertile couples, some forms of ART may be employed for genetic purposes (see preimplantation genetic diagnosis). Surrogacy arrangements may also include ART, however not all surrogacy arrangements do. The presence of sterility does not always need ART as the first treatment option to explore, as there are times when the cause is a minor condition that can be treated with more traditional treatments or behaviours aimed at improving health and reproductive practises. Donor eggs, donor sperm, and previously frozen embryos are sometimes used in ART operations. A surrogate or gestational carrier may also be used. A surrogate is a woman who becomes pregnant using the sperm of one of the couple's partners. A gestational carrier conceives a child with the help of an egg from one partner and sperm from the other. Multiple pregnancies is the most prevalent ART consequence. It can be avoided or reduced by reducing the number of embryos implanted in the parents' bodies.